Galileo Galilei was an Italian astronomer, physicist, and mathematician who lived between 1564 and 1642. He is considered to be one of the pioneers of modern physics and scientific methods.

Early Life

Galileo was born in Pisa, Italy, on February 15th, 1564. His father was a musician and wool trader. At an early age, Galileo showed a keen interest in mathematics and natural sciences. He started his higher education at the University of Pisa but eventually dropped out due to financial constraints.

Career and Achievements

After leaving university, Galileo started working as a tutor. In 1589 he became professor of mathematics at the University of Pisa but had to resign two years later due to controversy over his views on science.

Galileo went on to work at the University of Padua where he made some groundbreaking discoveries that revolutionized science; he designed instruments such as telescopes which helped him observe celestial objects such as Jupiter's moons and make discoveries that were previously impossible.

Among his most renowned contributions are:

  • The law of falling bodies: This law defines how fast objects fall under gravity.
  • The discovery of new celestial bodies: Through his telescope, Galileo discovered four satellites (later named after him) orbiting around Jupiter.
  • The heliocentric model: He supported Copernicus' theory that our solar system revolves around the sun disproving Aristotelian philosophy which stated otherwise.

However, several scientists disagreed with this theory leading to significant backlash against him by religious groups during this time period.

In addition to his scientific contributions, Galileo also invented the thermoscope precursor that led towards temperature measuring devices used today e.g mercury thermometer or alcohol thermometer.

Later Years and Legacy

In 1632 Galileo published "Dialogue Concerning Two Chief World Systems," which presented arguments for the heliocentric model. This controversial publication led to Galileo being charged with heresy by the Catholic Church and sentenced to house arrest until his death in 1642.

Despite persecution towards the end of his life, Galileo's work has continued to influence scientific thought spanning centuries since his passing contributing towards modern technical devices and advancements like space exploration.


Galileo Galilei was undoubtedly one of the most influential scientists of all time. His contributions revolutionized physics, astronomy, and mathematics. His research methods helped shape current scientific techniques, whereas his discoveries changed our worldview forever.